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PSYCHO - CORPOREL - L'intestin au secours de votre cerveau

Posted on November 30, 2018 at 12:10 AM

Le microbiote, cette population de bactéries qui vit en symbiose avec nos organes, influe sur notre santé physique et mentale, bien plus fortement que ce que l’on imaginait jusqu’alors...




Anciennement dénommé "flore intestinale", le microbiote est composé de 100 000 milliards de micro-organismes présents dans nos intestins. Comment sont-ils organisés ? D’où viennent-ils ? Avons-nous tous le même microbiote ? Celui-ci évolue-t-il au cours de la vie ? Comment le microbiote intestinal intervient-il dans le contrôle de la prise alimentaire ?

Le microbiote est l'ensemble des micro-organismes - bactéries, virus, parasites, champignons non pathogènes, dits commensaux - qui vivent dans un environnement spécifique. Dans l'organisme, il existe différents microbiotes, au niveau de la peau, de la bouche, du vagin… Le microbiote intestinal est le plus important d'entre eux, avec 1012 à 1014 micro-organismes : 2 à 10 fois plus que le nombre de cellules qui constituent notre corps, pour un poids de 2 kilos !


Une thématique devenue primordiale pour la recherche

Le microbiote intestinal est principalement localisé dans l'intestin grêle et le côlon – l'acidité gastrique rendant la paroi de l'estomac quasi stérile. Il est réparti entre la lumière du tube digestif et le biofilm protecteur que forme le mucus intestinal sur sa paroi intérieure (l’épithélium intestinal).

La présence de micro-organismes dans l'intestin est connue depuis plus d'un siècle et on a vite présupposé qu'il existait une véritable symbiose entre notre organisme et cette flore. Mais, jusque récemment, les moyens techniques permettant d’étudier les détails de cette interaction étaient limités : seule une minorité d'espèces bactériennes du microbiote pouvait être cultivée in vitro. La mise au point des techniques de séquençage haut débit du matériel génétique ont donné un nouvel élan à cette recherche et il existe aujourd’hui un réel engouement de la recherche pour décrire la nature des interactions hôte-microbiote, celles des micro-organismes entre eux, et leur incidenceincidenceNombre de cas nouveaux d'une maladie, apparus durant une période de temps donnée. en matière de santé.

Ainsi, le rôle du microbiote intestinal est de mieux en mieux connu. On sait désormais qu'il joue un rôle dans les fonctions digestive, métabolique, immunitaire et neurologique. En conséquence, la dysbiose, c'est-à-dire l'altération qualitative et fonctionnelle de la flore intestinale, est une piste sérieuse pour comprendre l'origine de certaines maladies, notamment celles sous-tendues par des mécanismes auto-immuns ou inflammatoires. Cette thématique est devenue centrale pour la recherche biologique et médicale.



Etude MétaHIT :

identifier l'ensemble des génomes microbiens intestinaux

L'étude MétaHIT, lancée en 2008 et coordonnée par l'Inra, a eu pour objectif d'identifier l’ensemble des génomes microbiens intestinaux (métagénome) par séquençage haut débit. Elle a aussi permis de dessiner une ébauche des interactions reliant métagénome et santé. Cette étude, première du genre, s'est fondée sur l'analyse d'échantillons de selles recueillis auprès de 124 personnes. Elle a identifié ainsi un total de 3,3 millions de gènes différents, appartenant à plus de 1 000 espèces différentes, dont une large majorité est d'origine bactérienne. Au plan individuel, elle a aussi montré que chaque individu portait en moyenne 540 000 gènes microbiens, soient environ 160 espèces, réparties en sept phyla (groupes de familles) différents. Enfin, MetaHIT a été la première étude à démontrer l'extrême richesse de la flore intestinale, en identifiant des centaines d'espèces bactériennes inconnues jusque-là.




Sur le même thème : Une conférence de France Culture (2013)  https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x5doe7p" target="_blank">à visionner ici


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Sources :

"L'intestin au secours de votre santé, France Culture 2013",

INSERM Rémy Burcelin (unité Inserm 1048 /université de Toulouse Paul Sabatier, Institut des maladies métaboliques et cardiovasculaires, hôpital Rangueil, Toulouse), Laurence Zitvogel (unité Inserm 1015 /Université Paris Sud, "Immunologie des tumeurs et immunothérapie contre le cancer", Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif), Guillaume Fond (unité Inserm 955 /Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne, Fondation FondaMental, Institut Mondor de recherche biomédicale, hôpital Mondor, Créteil) et Harry Sokol (unité Inserm 1157 /CNRS/UPMC, "Micro-organismes, molécules bioactives et physiopathologie intestinale", Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris)

Categories: Santé et plantes, Psychologie et introspection, Ce que la science peine à expliquer

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