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La musique peut-elle être visualisée, voire peinte ?

Posted on March 21, 2019 at 5:50 AM

La musique est un ensemble de sons harmoniques et théoriquement harmonieux constitué de vibrations sonores sur des gammes de fréquence très diverses (audibles et inaudibles).

Mais est-il possible d'en effectuer une représentation visuelle et non symbolique comme le propose notamment le solfège ?

Certaines personnes disposent d'une capacité particulière appelée "synesthésie" et certaines technologies de pointe permettent de réaliser des représentations précises.


La synesthésie traduit les sons en un flux de textures et de couleurs

Il s'agit d'un phénomène d'aptitude neurologique rare, qui ne touche qu'une personne sur 2000. La synesthésie, c’est une condition spécifique dans laquelle la stimulation d’un sens est perçue simultanément par un autre sens, sans que ce dernier sens n’ait été stimulé.

Des stimuli (graphèmes, unités temporelles, formes visuelles, sons…;) induisent alors des propriétés (couleurs, sons, goûts, températures…;)

Pour un synesthète, deux ou plusieurs sens sont associés. Par exemple, les lettres de l’alphabet peuvent paraître colorées avec une couleur bien spécifique pour chaque lettre.

La synesthésie est connue et étudiée depuis le 18e siècle, mais c’est surtout à la fin du 20e que le phénomène a commencé à être pris au sérieux par les scientifiques. Aujourd’hui, 152 formes de synesthésies différentes ont été répertoriées.

Pour Melissa McCracken, qui est douée de "synesthésie synoptique"," la musique est traduite en un flux de textures et couleurs. Bien que La synesthésie ne me gêne pas au quotidien, elle peut parfois me laisser un peu désemparée quand je dois expliquer ce que je vois aux autres. La peinture à l’huile est un moyen d’exprimer et de montrer les couleurs magnifiques que je peux voir tous les jours, aussi bien quand j’entends le nom d’une personne ou une musique à la radio."


Peinture synesthésique de Melissa McCracken : "Lucky" de Radiohead


Peinture synesthésique de Melissa McCracken : "Life on Mars" de David Bowie



D'où vient la synesthésie ?

Parmi les différentes hypothèses, on suggère par exemple que la synesthésie pourrait provenir d’un terrain génétique favorable (il y a souvent plusieurs synesthètes au sein d’une même famille). On explique également le phénomène en termes neurologiques – on suppose par exemple que les synesthètes auraient des connexions surnuméraires entre certaines aires du cerveau, ou encore qu’ils auraient plus d’associations entre les circuits de la mémoire, des émotions, du langage, de l’attention et de la perception et que tout cela convergerait dans le cortex rétrosplénial.

Mais selon d'autres hypothèses, la synesthésie aurait quelque chose à voir avec des vestiges de l’imaginaire enfantin : lors de l’apprentissage de la lecture, les enfants associeraient des lettres et des couleurs pour se faciliter la tâche. Dans ce processus, des neurones dédiés à acquérir une expertise visuelle seraient alors mobilisés. Pour les synesthètes, des neurones dédiés à la perception des couleurs pourraient avoir été utilisés pour apprendre la lecture. En conséquence de quoi les couleurs synesthésiques pourraient être des réminescences de la fonction antérieure des neurones.


Est-ce une pathologie ?

La synesthésie est-elle un trouble, une pathologie ? On considère qu’il s’agit d’un fonctionnement « anormal », puisqu’il se différencie du fonctionnement de la plupart des gens. Pour autant, la synesthésie pourrait aussi présenter des inconvénients. Par exemple, les synesthètes auraient plus de difficultés en mathématiques mais auraient de meilleurs résultats dans les tâches de mémoire ainsi qu'une plus grande créativité. En d’autres termes… la synesthésie est juste une autre manière de percevoir les sons ou encore les lettres et les chiffres.



Le CNRTL (Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales) livre une définition pathologique de la synesthésie:

"Trouble de la perception sensorielle dans lequel une sensation normale s'accompagne automatiquement d'une sensation complémentaire simultanée dans une région du corps différente de celle où se produit l'excitation ou dans un domaine sensoriel différent. Par les voies d'associations nombreuses qui relient les centres de l'audition aux autres centres, la sensation auditive donne naissance à des incitations diverses: réflexes moteurs (oculaires; statiques ou d'orientation; respiratoires; etc.); réflexes sensitifs ou synesthésies (audition colorée); réactions émotives (sécrétions; mimiques; troubles vaso-moteurs (...) L'intoxication par la mescaline, parce qu'elle compromet l'attitude impartiale et livre le sujet à sa vitalité, devra donc favoriser les synesthésies. En fait, sous mescaline, un son de flûte donne une couleur bleu vert, le bruit d'un métronome se traduit dans l'obscurité par des taches grises."


Le procédé dit "cymatique" crée une synesthésie technologique (numérique)

Ce procédé consiste à utiliser des membranes de haut-parleur au lieu de simples surfaces pour ces images sonores. Et il ne fallut pas longtemps avant que ces visualisations sphériques puissent être affichées sur de grands écrans. Le CymaScope a été le premier « instrument » avec lequel les vibrations sur l’eau pouvaient être affichées de manière multidimensionnelle.

Cliquez sur ces liens pour en savoir plus sur ce procédé :

www.thomann.de/blog/fr/cymatique-la-beauteduso/?fbclid=IwAR1g0bTtCYyyZPYYkpaxmBO9ZOLuF7kv6GPPYBEX5sAnoKn832ijWOURnHY

https//youtu.be/Q3oItpVa9fs

https//youtu.be/9al397N6Tzs


Categories: Ce que la science peine à expliquer, Insolite mais vrai !

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