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Thérapeute psycho-corporel, bio-énergéticien

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Le froid est-il bon pour la santé ?

Posted on December 3, 2019 at 12:05 AM

L’organisme humain dépense beaucoup d’énergie pour réguler sa température, qui doit rester proche de 37°C en toutes circonstances. Il s’adapte, plus ou moins facilement, aux températures élevées ainsi qu’aux températures basses.


Lorsque la température extérieure baisse, l’organisme doit maintenir sa température pour éviter l’hypothermie (température corporelle inférieure à 35°C). Cette dernière peut être plus ou moins sévère selon l’intensité du froid et la durée d’ex"4"> L’hypothermie légère (32 à 35°C) : la personne frissonne et ses extrémités sont froides.

L’hypothermie modérée (28 à 32°C) : les fonctions respiratoires et cardiaques (ralentissement de la respiration et du rythme cardiaque) sont touchées et la personne présente des troubles de la vigilance.

L’hypothermie sévère (24 à 28°C) : la personne est comateuse et peut être en apnée. Son rythme cardiaque est réduit et des troubles du rythme cardiaque apparaissent.

L’hypothermie profonde (inférieure à 24°C) : la personne est en état de mort apparente et risque de décéder par arrêt cardio-respiratoire.

Même si la plupart des cas d’hypothermie surviennent chez des personnes exposées au froid sans protection suffisante (SDF, personnes perdues en montagne, victimes d’une avalanche, survivants d’un naufrage, …;), elle peut aussi survenir après une courte exposition au froid, notamment lors d’un bain de mer en hiver où quelques minutes peuvent suffire à provoquer une hypothermie.

Une thérapie anti-douleur ?

Si, dans des conditions de vie normales, le corps doit réguler sa température pour éviter l’hypothermie, le froid peut représenter un mode de traitement pour diverses pathologies. La cryothérapie corps entier, originaire des pays nordiques, est ainsi utilisée depuis les années 80 et consiste à placer l’organisme dans un environnement très froid, sec et sans vent, pour une courte durée. Le choc thermique engendré est à l’origine de :

- Une vasoconstriction (diminution du calibre des vaisseaux sanguins) ;

- Une stimulation des récepteurs thermiques de la peau puis centraux, qui déclenchent les systèmes de régulation thermique (augmentation du tonus musculaire et du fonctionnement cellulaire, sécrétion d’hormones telles que l’adrénaline, les corticoïdes, les hormones thyroïdiennes, …;) ;

- Un effet anti-douleur par ralentissement de la conduction de l’influx nerveux ;

- Un effet anti-inflammatoire par abaissement de la température des tissus.

- Le froid sollicite aussi particulièrement le cœur et le système vasculaire, par plusieurs mécanismes :

- Une augmentation de la consommation d’énergie ;

- Une augmentation du rythme cardiaque ;

- Une vasoconstriction ;

- Une déshydratation.

Faites de plus en plus en plus attention en prenant de l'âge !

Se protéger du froid constitue un impératif pour toutes les personnes atteintes de maladies ou troubles cardiovasculaires : hypertension artérielle, insuffisance cardiaque, antécédents d’infarctus du myocarde, d’accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) ou d’atteintes des valves cardiaques, troubles du rythme, syndrome de Raynaud, etc. Les personnes de plus de 65 ans doivent également être vigilantes, car avec l’âge, l’organisme s’adapte moins facilement aux variations de la température environnante. Ces personnes doivent bien protéger leurs extrémités, éviter les efforts brutaux à l’extérieur et limiter leurs activités en cas de pics de pollution.

Parallèlement, chacun, qu’il soit ou non atteint de problèmes cardiovasculaires, doit être plus attentif à la survenue de palpitations, de sensations d’oppression dans la poitrine, d’essoufflements, de douleurs thoraciques ou de vertiges. En effet, les périodes de grand froid sont propices à la survenue des accidents cardiovasculaires. Ainsi, deux fois plus d’infarctus du myocarde sont recensés après une journée à -4°C.

A petite dose, le froid peut donc être bénéfique, mais il faut savoir s’en protéger pour préserver notre cœur. Alors, n’oubliez pas votre écharpe en sortant !

A savoir : Le syndrome ou maladie de Raynaud correspond à un arrêt momentané de la circulation sanguine au niveau des extrémités (doigts, orteils, nez, oreilles) qui deviennent blanches et insensibles, voire bleus et gonflés. Lié à la vasoconstriction provoquée par l’exposition au froid, il est le plus souvent bénin et réversible. Mais il peut aussi être lié à d’autres maladies vasculaires ou à des maladies auto-immunes (polyarthrite rhumatoïde, lupus érythémateux disséminé, sclérodermie, …;). Les personnes atteintes du syndrome de Raynaud doivent particulièrement se protéger du froid.

Categories: Santé et plantes, Questions / Réponses

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